Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics- mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (30 to 40ppt), to water of over twice the salinity of ocean sea water,where the salt becomes concentrated by evaporation (up to 90ppt). There are many species of trees and shrubs adapted to saline conditions. Not all are closely related, and the term “Mangrove” may be used for all of them, or more narrowly only for the mangrove family of lands, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just for mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora. Mangroves from a characteristic saline woodland or shrub land habitat called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal. Mangals are found in depositional coastal environments where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. They occur both in estuaries and along open coastlines.
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